Peshawar Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences (PJPBS) <p>Peshawar Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences (PJPBS) is open access Journal, published biannually by the Department of Psychology, Islamia College Peshawar.&nbsp;It publishes original empirical articles covering diverse facets of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences. It is intended to be a forum for generating discourse that blends science and theory and ultimately evolves into practice and policy.&nbsp;PJPBS looks forward to receiving research from all corners of the world.&nbsp;</p> Islmia College Peshawar en-US Peshawar Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences (PJPBS) 2415-6779 <p>Peshawar Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. All articles published by Peshawar Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This permits anyone to copy, redistribute, transmit and adapt the work provided the original work and source is appropriately cited as specified by the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.</p> Perceived Parenting Styles among Drug Addict and Non-Addict Medical Students <p>Current study was planned to find out the difference between the perceived parenting styles of drug addict and non-addict medical students. Total sample of the study was two hundred (N=200) medical students that comprised of one hundred addict (n=100) and one hundred (n=100) non-addict medical students with age range of 18 to 29 years. Data was collected from different medical colleges in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa through convenient and snow ball techniques. Data was collected through adolescent’s alcohol and drug usage scale (Moberg, 1991)and parenting styles questionnaire (Buri, 1991) . The results of the study indicated that authoritative parenting style was significantly reported by non-addict medical students, whereas addict medical students reported higher scores on authoritarian parenting style. It can be therefore concluded from the findings of the study that parenting styles play a significant role in the mental wellbeing and promotion of healthy habits among youth. The study supports the idea that controlling parenting style may contribute to promote mental health problems among youth such as drug addiction.</p> Salma Rehman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 5 1 Role of Integrity in Relation with Negative Emotions and Behavioral Problems among University Students <p>This study was aimed at understanding the role of integrity in relationship of negative emotions with behaviour problems i.e. aggression, bullying, and shyness among university students. The sample consisted of two hundred and seventy (<em>N</em>= 270) university students, that comprised of one hundred and thirty-three (n=133) male and one hundred and thirty seven (n=137) female students of university. The convenient sampling technique was used for data collection. Study measures included, Urdu versions of integrity scale (Schlenker, 2008),aggression scale (Orpinas &amp; Frankowski, 2001), and shyness scale (Cheek &amp; Melichor, 1985) translated by Umar (2016), and Illinois bullying scale(Espelage &amp; Holt, 2001)translated by Shujja and Atta (2013), and negative emotions subscale of Berkeley expressivity questionnaire (Gross &amp; John, 1997) were used to measure the pertinent constructs. Pearson correlation showed the positive relationship between negative emotions and shyness behaviour problem. Hierarchical regression demonstrated that integrity did not moderate the relationship between negative emotions and behaviour problems including aggression, bullying, and shyness. Limitations, suggestions, and practical implications were also thoroughly discussed.</p> Mohsin Atta Samreen Umar Salma Naz Gul ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 5 1 Nomophobia an Emerging Fear: An Experimental Exploration among University Students <p>Modern communication technologies have become a very essential part of our lives, especially smartphones (Salehan &amp; Negahban, 2013). Present study explored the effects of fear of separation from the smartphone on university students. The sample comprised of three hundred students of Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan with age range of 18-30 years. The purpose of this present study was to explore the existence of nomophobia among smartphone users. Furthermore, it was aimed to investigate effect of smartphone separation causes anxiety. An experimental research design was used and participants were randomly assigned to two conditions. Two measures were used in the study they included, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) developed by Spielberger, (1983) and nomophobia questionnaire (NMP-Q) developed by Yildirim ( 2015). Results revealed that 68% of the students experienced moderate level of nomophobia and the level of anxiety gradually increased with increase in duration of separation from phone. One- way analysis of variance found significant difference on different levels of anxiety in experimental group I and experimental group II. No significant gender differences were found for state anxiety and nomophobia. It is concluded from the findings of the study that excessive use and dependence on smartphones does cause anxiety and feeling of restlessness in the absence of smartphone.</p> Iram Batool Ayesha Zahid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-18 2019-08-18 5 1 A Comparative Study of Psychological Maladjustment between Drug Addicts and Non Drug Addicts in Peshawar <p>The present research was conducted to explore the degree of psychological adjustment/maladjustment among male drug addicts in Peshawar. For this purpose, a representative sample of two hundred participants (<em>N</em>=200) with age range of 22-35 years. The sample comprised of one hundred (n=100) drug addicts and one hundred (n=100) non-addicts with mean age of <em>M</em>=32.83 (<em>SD</em>=8.90), selected from Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar and Dost Welfare Foundation, Peshawar, whereas, (n=100) non-drug addicts, with mean age of <em>M</em>=26.80 (<em>SD</em>=4.45), were selected from general population. It was observed that majority of the drug addicts were uneducated and belonged to low socioeconomic class. To obtain reliable results, both the study groups were matched in terms of age, level of education, and employment status. The demographic information of the participants was recorded using personal data sheet devised by the researcher. For the assessment of psychological adjustment/maladjustment of both groups, Urdu version of Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Riaz, 2011) was administered which was originally developed in English language by Rohner and Khaleque (2008). The results showed higher level of psychological maladjustment among drug addicts as compared to non-drug addicts. Furthermore, significant difference between the two groups on total score of PAQ (p &lt;.001) was also evident in the study. It was concluded that drug addicts suffered from severe psychological distress in terms of aggression/hostility, dependency, low self-adequacy, emotional instability, emotional unresponsiveness, and negative worldview.</p> Bushra Sajid Syeda Nadia Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-04 2019-08-04 5 1 The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Organizational Justice Development and LMX in Pakistan International Airline <p>The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and leader-member exchange (LMX) and organizational justice (OJ) in a public sector organization. PIA was the case study of the following research and therefore data was collected from certain selected employees in PIA, while the findings of this study was generalized over the entire employee base of PIA and also over the other public sector organizations of the country. The design of the research is quantitative and the data collection method is primary. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 391 employees of PIA. The sample size was identified based on Slovin’s formula for sample size calculation. Several statistical techniques such as reliability, correlation, and partial least square method analysis were applied to identify the relationship between the variables. The researcher has also conducted a detailed discussion over the findings of this study, while comparing it with the evaluations carried out by past studies regarding the subject matter under consideration. The findings of the study indicate that a positive relationship exists between EI and LMX as well as between EI and OJ. &nbsp;</p> Junaid Athar Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-04 2019-08-04 5 1 Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Project Success: Does Emotional Intelligence Matter <p>The purpose of this academic research was to investigate the connectedness between conscientiousness, extraversion and project success underpins trait theory. In doing so, additional investigation was made whether Emotional Intelligence (EI) strengthens or weakens the relationship of conscientiousness, extraversion as antecedents of a project success. A deductive approach was applied to validate a theoretically derived research model coupled with moderation impact as novelty. In this study convenient sampling technique was used; a self-administrated survey conducted and collected 279 useable responses for quantitative analysis. To test the hypothesized relationships PROCESS Macro v3.0 by Andrew F. Hayes Model 1 devised as a regression analysis methodology. The statistical results indicate conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional intelligence (EI) significantly predicting Project Success in direct relationships. Moderation Interaction terms for emotional intelligence (EI) with extraversion and conscientiousness both predicting project success significantly as conditional effect. This research provides implications and future direction for researchers and practitioners to explore new avenues by changing methodology, increasing sample size and studying diverse industries as well as other aspects of demographics like; whether project leadership role is moderating these relationship or project team diluting effect. &nbsp;</p> Mubashar Hassan Zia Haroon Ahmed Amir Ishaque ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-04 2019-08-04 5 1 Impact of Educational Qualification on Social Support, Social Isolation and Social and Emotional Loneliness: A Study of Senior Citizens <p>The present study aims to investigate the impact of educational qualification on social support, social isolation, and loneliness (social and emotional) among Senior Citizens. De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (1985),Social Support Scale developed by Malik (2002), and Friendship Scale developed by Hawthorne (2006) were used to measure the pertinent constructs of present study. Purposive convenient sampling technique was used to draw the sample of older adults (N = 500) aged 60 to 90 years (M = 67.59, SD = 7.54) from both urban and rural areas of various districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Alpha coefficients, for all the variables were computed, which ranged between .60 for social loneliness to .96 for social support total scale. Study found significant differences among the variables. Findings revealed that educational qualification of the sample had a positive impact on their social support and they were less socially isolated as compared to uneducated senior citizens.</p> Salma Naz Gul Rabia Chishti Maher Bano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 5 1 153 170 10.32879/picp.2018.4.2.153 The Significance of Interactional Justice on Human Dignity that Shapes Mass Exodus of Employees in an Organization: A Case Study of SMEs in Private Sector of Pakistan <p>The study aims to investigate the relationship between perceived interactional justice and mass exodus of employees or employee’s turnover intentions in the employees of private sector SMEs of Pakistan, while considering the mediating impact role of human dignity/self-interest of employees. Deductive research approach with quantitative methodology is used for conducting this study and responses from 50 employees working in 10 different SMEs located in twin-cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad were obtained through pre-structured questionnaires. Multiple regression and inter-variable correlation analysis were applied for evaluating the relationship between the given variables of the study. SPSS data analysis tool is used for the statistical evaluation of responses obtained from the participants of the study, which are then interpreted and explained under each relevant section. The findings of this study fully supported the conceptual framework by accepting all the three hypothesis of the study. Finally, the researcher has identified certain limitations related to the given evaluation and also provided explanations regarding the possible future implications of the given study, so that the future researcher can use this study as an effective pool of knowledge before starting their respective studies.</p> Junaid Athar Khan Qadar Bakhsh Baloch ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 5 1 203 220 10.32879/picp.2018.4.2.203 Emotional Climate, Work Stress and Occupational Cognitive Failure in Doctors <p>The current study was conducted to explore emotional climate, work stress and occupational cognitive failure among doctors. The sample of 150 doctors was selected from two cities i.e. Jhang and Faisalabad. Emotional climate was measured by Emotional climate scale by Yurtsever&amp; De Rivera (2010), for work stress, Work Place Stress Scale by American institute of stress and adapted by Fatima Chohan (2013) was used. Occupational Cognitive Failure was measured by occupational cognitive failure questionnaire by Allahyari, Rangi, Khosravi and Zayeri (2011). The data was analyzed by administering t-test, correlation and regression analysis. Results revealed that Emotional climate, work stress and cognitive failure are significantly positively correlated. No significant difference between male and female, rural and urban, government and private doctors on the level of emotional climate, work stress and occupational cognitive failure was found. Significant difference between nuclear and joint family doctors on the level of work stress was found. Doctors from nuclear family system showed higher level of work stress as compared to Joint family doctors. Emotional climate, work stress and demographic variables are predictors which collectively and significantly contributed to occupational cognitive failure.</p> Shaukat Hussain Iram Batool Sheher Bano Hina Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 5 1 221 235 10.32879/picp.2018.4.2.221 Relationship between Social Media Marketing and Consumer Buying Behavior <p>The social media has become an integral part of our lives with the introduction of 3G, 4G technology in Pakistan it has become possible for people to stay connected from anywhere any time. The purpose of this study is to find out that if any relationship between social media marketing and consumer buying behavior exist if their existence affected each other in any significant way. For this purpose an online survey was conducted and 100 people responded who were active users of social media in the region of Peshawar an unstructured/ structured questionnaire was designed to collect information from the respondents. The research findings and results confirms that there is a positive relationship between social media marketing and consumer buying behavior as well as that social media can be used as an effective marketing tool in region of Peshawar.</p> Syed Muhammad Ather Naimat Ullah Khan Faizan ur Rehman Lubna Nazneen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-15 2019-02-15 5 1 193 202 10.32879/picp.2018.4.2.193 Role of Family, Neighbourhood and Peers in Development of Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents <p>All over the globe juvenile delinquency is a major issue. Even after lots of efforts to minimize it, it is increasing. Therefore, the review paper aims on looking at the basic causes of development of delinquent behavior in adolescents. Objectives of this study are, finding out what role family plays in development of adolescents’ delinquent behavior, what role neighborhood (local neighborhood or extra-local neighborhood) plays in development of delinquent behavior in adolescents, what role do peers play in development of delinquent behavior in adolescents and what role do economic factors and personal factors play in development of adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Researches from past 12 years (from 2004 till 2016), including 39 papers, relevant to the study have been selected on basis of the keywords of the study from different websites PubMed, WileyOnline Library and some other online sociology, criminology and community psychology journal websites. Type of studies included in this paper are quantitative, qualitative, case study, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Results indicated family, peers, neighborhood, economic factors and personal factors are the reasons of development of delinquent behavior of adolescents. Interventions in keeping consideration of these issues should be planned for the reduction of juvenile crimes.</p> Saima Masoom Ali Shahana Masood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-15 2019-02-15 5 1 171 192 10.32879/picp.2018.4.2.171 Self-Concept and Self-Esteem among Adults <p>Despite an ample study and analysis of Self concept and Self esteem, not a solitary deconstructive work has been done on the Effect of Self concept on Self esteem. So, this study aimed at the disclosure of all the ways through which self concept affects the self esteem among university students. The research method applied on the paper was quantitative. The study adopted a Multiple Self Concept Scale byBruce A. Bracken and Rosenberg’s Self- esteems scale (Rosenberg, 1965). The collected data analysis was accomplished statistically using the t-test and coefficient of correlation techniques. A sample of 250 students comprised of 75 males and 175 females was taken from BZU Multan. The inferences of the study conceded that Self Concept has a significant effect on Self esteem among university adults. Besides, the research inquiry brought the fact to light that there is, no doubt, a significant disparity of influences of self concept on self esteem between male and female.</p> Amna Ajmal Aqsa Batool Shumaila Abid Hina Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-15 2019-02-15 5 1 237 246 10.32879/picp.2018.4.2.237 Neuropsychological Impairment among Juvenile Delinquents <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of neuropsychological impairment among delinquents and non- delinquents. The total sample comprised of two hundred participants consisting of one hundred juvenile and non-juvenile with age range of 10-17 years (M=15.76, SD= 1.93). Data was collected from the incarcerated subjects from three main jails of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa they include, Central Prisons of Kohat, Peshawar Swabi and Haripur with the help of Psychologists serving in the prison. It was hypothesized that delinquents will score higher on neuropsychological impairment scale as compared to non-delinquents. Neuropsychological impairment will be significantly correlated with the scores of delinquency. The results revealed significant impairment in the neurological functioning of the delinquents as compared to non-delinquents. In the present study six neuropsychological deficits were measured, they included neuropsychological emotional, learning, sensory motor, concentration, and neuropsychological depression in association with delinquency. Hence the results produced three key findings, first the sub-scales of neuropsychological impairment were significantly positively associated with delinquency. Second, sub-scales of neuropsychological impairment predicted variation in the magnitude of association with delinquency. Third, of all the six sub-scales neuropsychological emotional problems, neuropsychological motor problems and neuropsychological depression were slightly strongly associated with delinquency as compared to learning, sensory motor and concentration problem.</p> </div> </div> </div> Hina Iqbal Madiha Asghar Gulshan Tara Mussarat Zahra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 5 1 139 152 10.32879/picp.2018.4.1.139 Parental Modeling, a Determinant of Pro-Environmental Attitude and Behavior in Youth <p>The purpose of this research was to study the effects of parental modeling on the pro environmental attitude and behavior of youth. Sample of the study consisted of (N= 692) adolescents, including both male and female genders of ages (18-25) years having education of Intermediate, BS and Masters, from Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. A demographic sheet and self constructed Environmental Attitude Questionnaire, was administered to the subjects selected through convenient sampling method. Results showed that parental modeling plays a significant role in shaping youth’s pro environmental attitude and behavior. This impact is greater for females as compared to males, for adolescents as compared to young adults and for rural youth as compared to urban youth.</p> Lubna Nazneen Madiha Asghar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 5 1 33 43 10.32879/picp.2018.4.1.33 Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Anxiety in Young Adults <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the brief fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety in young adults. Sample of 230 young adults (110=males, 120=females)was taken from different departments of Bahaudin Zakriya University Multan. The study aimed to check the correlation between fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety and differences in fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety among males and females as well as among undergraduate and post graduate students. Brief fear of negative evaluation scale (Leary, M. R., 1983) and Liebowitz social anxiety scale (Michael R. Liebowitz, 1987) was used. Findings revealed positive correlation between social anxiety and Brief fear of negative evaluation. The study concluded that fear of negative evaluation produce social anxiety in young adults (university students). Independent t test confirmed the significant difference among male, females as well as among undergraduate and post graduate on these two variables. Female students showed more fear of negative evaluation and social anxiety than male students; similarly, undergraduate students showed more social anxiety.</p> </div> </div> </div> Amna Iqbal Amna Ajmal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 5 1 45 53 10.32879/picp.2018.4.1.45 Pakistani Media and Its Positive Effects: The Study of Children Selected Cartoons <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Pakistani media has tried to present positive themes for the children of the country. The country has seen terrorism which affected every field of life and the country law and order situation was at stake. The upbringing of children in such a situation is very dangerous as they are getting only negative messages from the society. The media has a great quality to influence the mind of the growing, even mature, children. There is a dire need of some campaign to break the negative atmosphere and divert the attention of children towards the positive aspects of life. The three cartoon programs Quaid Say Baatain (2013), Burka Avenger(2013), and 3 Bahadur (2015) have done a great job. The researcher will analyze these three cartoon programs in the light of Social Action theory by Anderson and Meyer and Cultivation Theory by George Gerbner. The purpose of the study is to bring to light the positive image of the Pakistani society through media.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sarwat Rehman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 5 1 97 120 10.32879/picp.2018.4.1.97 Gender Differences in Social Support, Loneliness, and Isolation among Old Age Citizens <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The present paper attempted to explore the impact of gender on social support, social isolation and loneliness (social and emotional) among senior citizens. In order to assess the study constructs 6-Item (short) De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale (1985), 6-item (short) scale developed by Hawthorne (2006) and, Social Support Scale developed by Malik (2002) were used. Standardized back translation procedure was used for the translation of the measures into Urdu. Purposive convenient sampling technique was used to draw the sample of 500 senior citizens from both urban and rural areas of the various districts of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The age of the participants ranged between 60 to 90 years (M = 67.59, SD= 7.54). -test analysis revealed significant gender differences on social support and its sub constructs. Moreover results demonstrated non-significant gender differences for isolation and loneliness.</p> </div> </div> </div> Salma Naz Gul Rabia Chishti Maher Bano ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 5 1 15 31 10.32879/picp.2018.4.1.15 The Mediating Role of Self-Compassion in the Relationship of Mindfulness with Depressive Symptoms <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The Study has been conducted to explore the relationship between mindfulness and depressive symptoms with mediating variable of Self-Compassion. The Objective of this study determines how mindfulness predicts depressive symptoms by taking account of self-compassion. The sample of three hundred and fifty 350 students was taken from Bahudin Zakriya university, Multan (Punjab, Pakistan). The results revealed that mindfulness and self-compassion have significant negative correlation with depressive symptoms. Moreover, self- compassion has strongly predicted depressive symptoms than mindfulness through multiple regression analysis and it has more mediating effect than mindfulness through mediation analysis. t- test and ANOVA shows that statistical difference found on depressive symptoms regarding age and education.</p> </div> </div> </div> Wajeeha Sibghat-ullah Iram Batool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 5 1 55 80 10.32879/picp.2018.4.1.55 Effects of Perceived Parenting Styles on Disruptive Behavior among Adolescents <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Adolescence is a very crucial stage of development. In order to determine the effect of perceived parenting styles on disruptive behavior, this study was planned to conduct among adolescents. The sample consisted of 120 adolescents who were taken from Multan City by using Purposive sampling technique. Parenting styles scale developed by Jody Powell (1990) and Beck Disruptive Behavior Inventory developed by Beck (2005) were used to assess perceived parenting styles and disruptive behavior respectively. The results indicated that there was a negative correlation between parenting styles and disruptive behavior. Results also showing the significant difference among male and female adolescence disruptive behavior and also defined that there is no significant difference in disruptive behavior among rural and urban adolescence. More studies should be conducted on this issue because it is important to enhance the positive child rearing practices in order to avoid problems in later life.</p> </div> </div> </div> Fehmida Shehzadi Ruqia Safdar Bajwa Iram Batool Asghar Ali Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 5 1 1 13 10.32879/picp.2018.4.2.1 Psychological Reasons for Committing Crimes: A Case Study of Central Jail Peshawar <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The present study was conducted in District Central Jail, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess the factors shaping the criminal attitude of adults. The study proceeded with the objectives to assess the relationship between psychological factors with criminal attitude among criminals. A sample size of N=196 was randomly drawn from the universe. Sampling covered all the adult criminal of the age group of 18-64 years from the total population of N=360 convicted criminals. Frequency distribution and bi-vitiate analysis between dependent variable i.e. criminal attitude and independent variables namely psychological aspects were ascertain through cross tabulation while indexing the dependent variable. At bi-variate level, parents sentence several time was found significant, relatives’ involvement in criminal activities, large family was responsible for crimes, parents using intoxicants, joint family generating criminal attitude. Moreover, feeling of low social status, unhappy family life, commitment to family cause, broken family, low moral values, internalization of criminal values and vicious tendencies of crimes were found significant with criminal attitude.. The study concluded that poor family with large size had high interaction with criminals were some of the attributing factors for committing crimes.</p> </div> </div> </div> Zarsanga , Intikhab Alam Shahid Iqbal Alamgeer Khan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 5 1 121 137 10.32879/picp.2018.4.1.121